Flowerhorn fish are the ultimate “pet” fish due to their extremely interactive nature. They have been specifically bred to respond to the humans around them, and some will even lift their nuchal hump out of the water to be petted!
Flowerhorns are a hybrid fish that is based on one of the earliest man-made hybrid fish: the blood parrot. Since the first flowerhorns, often called luohans, flowerhorn cichlids have been hybridized with dozens of other cichlids. Their genetic history is unknown and varies greatly with each strain.
This complete guide will cover everything you need to know about keeping, caring for, and breeding Flowerhorn fish. You cannot complete your fish-keeping career without one of these inquisitive fish.
About Flowerhorn Cichlids
- Scientific Name: Unknown- Hybrid
- Temperament: Aggressive
- Care Level: Intermediate
- Origin: Variable
- Common Names: Flower horn cichlid, Flowerhorn
Flowerhorns are extremely aggressive towards most tank mates, but some tankmates can coexist with flowerhorns. Flowerhorns tend to be aggressive towards anything entering their “territory” but still act like puppy dogs to their owners.
Flowerhorns are not a naturally occurring species and have no natural habitat, but several have been released into the wild and are now classified as invasive species.
They can be found around most warm Eastern Asian areas but have a less destructive impact than most other invasive species since most Flowerhorns are infertile.
Short-bodied flowerhorns often only live for 4-5 years, while longer-bodied ones live 8-12 years on average.
Recently, the expected lifespan has been lowered with the incoming generations, as the newcomers are more inbred than ever.
Do not despair! This only applies to a few strains in different areas of the world and is simply something to be aware of. Most strains are still strong and are not suffering from health concerns just yet.
The size of your flowerhorn will vary greatly depending on the strain. King Kamfas, for example, reach sizes around 12-16 inches, while Thai silk often stay around 8-12 inches. Short-bodied flowerhorns will be a few inches shorter than their long-bodied counterparts.
Flowerhorn Fish Care
Even though different flowerhorns, even ones of the same strain, have diverse genetic backgrounds, this care guide can be applied to all of them.
Flowerhorns are considered an intermediate fish due to their aggressive nature, massive size, waste production, and diet requirements.
- Tank Size: Flowerhorns should have a tank size of 125 gallons or 150-175 gallons if you plan on housing a male and female pair. It is popular to grow them out in smaller tanks and graduate them to larger ones as they grow, but unless you have plans for the smaller tanks, it could be considered a waste of money. Smaller tanks technically have enough gallons for them to swim around in and dilute their waste, but they are often not wide enough to allow a flowerhorn to turn around. Some of the smaller strains can be kept in a 75 or 90 gallon, but all fish appreciate more space.
- Flow: Flowerhorns are strong fish and can tolerate moderate to high flow, but it is possible to have too much flow. If your flowerhorn is being blown all over the tank, the flow is too strong. Many flowerhorn keepers install additional powerheads along the bottom of the tank to push the waste towards the filter.
- Substrate: Most large fish that are kept with a gravel substrate run the risk of swallowing it with their food. The gravel can then become impacted in the fish’s intestines, preventing it from passing any waste and creating a serious health risk. Large pieces of tile, bare bottom, or sand substrates are popular choices for Flowerhorn Cichlids.
Flowerhorns come from a huge mix of cichlids, most with different water requirements, which is why the fish never bred in the wild. Flowerhorns prefer soft to moderately hard water, but stability is more important than “perfect” water parameters.
These are basic guidelines for Flowerhorn water parameters:
- pH: 6.0-8.0
- Temperature: 80-85°F
- Alkalinity: 6°-20° dGH
Flowerhorns are sensitive to ammonia, nitrite, and nitrates, more so than other fish. Any measurable amount of ammonia or nitrite is actively causing damage to your fish, so cycling the tank beforehand is necessary.
Ammonia and nitrite only appear at the beginning of the cycle, while nitrates are at the end stage of the cycle.
Nitrates tend to sneak up on people, especially those who keep fish that produce a lot of waste, like flowerhorns. Water changes remove nitrates, so even if your water looks perfectly clean, don’t skip those bi-weekly water changes; you can’t see toxins like nitrates.
It is extremely important to test your water, and the API freshwater master test kit is the most accurate test kit on the market and the cheapest per test.
Flowerhorns are far from picky when it comes to eating, but they require a protein-richs and strongly varied diet. Live foods are not necessary, as they will eat frozen and dried foods with no problems.
Flowerhorns need a staple pellet to provide micronutrients and vitamins as well as additions like sun-dried crickets, grasshoppers, mealworms, anchovies, and frozen shrimp.
Worms, such as white worms, blackworms, earthworms, and nightcrawlers can also be fed to Flowerhorns.
Since overfeeding can lead to excess ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate, it is important to feed several smaller meals per day.
Flowerhorns are typically fed three times a day and the amount that needs to be fed varies on the type of food being fed and the Flowerhorn variety. Feeding what the fish can eat in 20-40 seconds is typically a good rule for Flowerhorns.
Types of Flowerhorns
All Flowerhorns require the same care and water parameters as listed above even though they are each made up of different percentages of cichlid species and different species altogether.
The types of flowerhorns are often considered morphs, or color patterns, rather than separate species. There are hundreds of different flowerhorn strains and grades, but we will cover the more popular ones here.
These Flowerhorns are known for their massive nuchal humps, also called a kok, and their strikingly varied patterning. They typically have a deep red-based body with light blue to white patterning across their body and fins with white or yellow eyes.
They also have a row of patterning called “flowers”, which are black and run down their middle body. Higher-grade ones will also have flowers on their nuchal hump. These are some of the most widely available and sought-after Flowerhorns.
The Zhen Zhu Flowerhorn is best known for its near-perfect “flowerline”, or line of flowering pattern along its body, also called pearling. These are not as popular as the classic Kamfa and tend to be rounder with red eyes and more yellow/tan in color.
Their great iridescent flowering pattern makes them useful to breeders, and they are often bred into other strains to produce higher quality flowering patterns in different Flowerhorn strains.
This is part of the reason that Flowerhorns have a muddled genetic history; not only are they bred to other cichlids, but also cross-bred among hundreds of flowerhorn varieties, making genetics impossible to track.
Thai Silk Flowerhorns are also known as Titanium Flowerhorns due to their metallic scales covering their whole body. These are typically a light blue in color but can also appear in gold or white metallic morphs.
They have a longer, more square body shape like a Kamfa, but their eyes can be white, yellow, and red. This strain is speculated to have several Texas cichlids within it.
Golden Base Fader
These Flowerhorn are comparable to the marble-gene found in bettas, which is a gene that triggers random color changes throughout a betta’s body.
The Golden Bases are referred to as Faders because the juveniles start out with gold and red coloration, but as they mature, they turn black and finally back to a stronger gold and red coloration.
Higher grades are only achievable after they have faded and gained a greater coloration. Faders also support impressive nuchal humps and typically have red eyes, though other eye colors can appear.
These can lack the black line down the middle of the body and still be considered high grade.
These Flowerhorns are considered lucky and are one of the very few luohan-based Flowerhorns left in existence. They come in a large range of colors, most are similar to the Golden Based in colors, though they can have blue and gold pearling over a red or gold body.
These tend to have the black line of flowers down the middle of their bodies and commonly have red eyes that protrude more than those of the Kamfa.
Since they are one of the last luohan Flowerhorns, they are extremely rare and command one of the highest price tags of any specialized Flowerhorn strain.
Red Ingot Flowerhorn/ King Kong Parrot
Depending on the body shape of this fish, they are typically labeled as either Flowerhorns or specialized Blood Parrots.
Flowerhorns are based on the Blood Parrot fish, but after almost 30 years of blending the Flowerhorns with dozens of cichlid species, they are far from the beginning luohans.
These fish are considered one of the early stages of Flowerhorns when Blood Parrots and Red cichlids had a dominant genetic influence over the Flowerhorn.
If they are labeled as a King Kong Parrot cichlid, they tend to have shorter bodies and lack a kok, but still have strong red coloring and are considered “better” than the normal Blood Parrot.
The Flowerhorn version can have very large nuchal humps, like many modern-day Flowerhorns, but their body size and shape can vary greatly. They tend to have the same deep red coloring as their Blood Parrot counterparts.
Types of Nuchal Humps (Koks)
When referring to different types of nuchal humps, they are most commonly referred to as koks.
- Water Kok: These nuchal humps are the largest out there and are a desired trait. They are composed of a gel-like substance under the skin and are soft and squishy to the touch. They are also transparent under LED lighting.
- Hard Kok: These are mostly comprised of a dense layer of fat and tend to stay very small and are only slightly noticeable. These are hard to the touch and are not translucent in the slightest.
- Medium Kok: These are often not referred to and do not have a specific name. This type of nuchal hump is a mix of the two previous nuchal humps. They are at first squishy to the touch, but after slight pressure is applied, one can tell that they are hard underneath. They are made of a dense layer of fat covered in fluids and gel-like substances. In addition, they tend to be more impressive than the Hard Kok, but much less impressive than the Water Kok.
Flowerhorn Tank Mates
Due to their aggressive nature and large size, it is recommended to house Flowerhorns alone. However, it is possible to house them with tank mates, but they must be closely watched for the first several weeks to ensure compatibility.
Suitable Tank Mates
- Sailfin Pleco
- Common Pleco
- Tiger Oscar
- Large Bichirs
- Other large Cichlids
- A flowerhorn of the opposite sex
- Smaller Arowana species (e.g. Silver)
Tank Mates to Avoid
Here are a few species you should not keep with Flowerhorns:
- Any fish smaller than 10”: Fish over this side with peaceful nature will not survive the aggressive nature of a flowerhorn. It is recommended to only keep them with other large cichlid species that will match their level of aggression.
- Invertebrates: Flowerhorns will eat any shrimp, snail, or crayfish that is unfortunate enough to make it into their tank. This does mean that you can keep some marmorkrebs and breed them as feeders for your flowerhorns, but there are no good invertebrate tank mates for them.
Reasons to Avoid Tank Mates
Flowerhorns have been specifically bred for their coloration and interaction. Adding tank mates will greatly decrease the interaction between you and the flowerhorn, as will the addition of decorations and toys.
If the Flowerhorn is already spending energy playing with the other fish in the tank, it will not be nearly as interactive with you.
There is always a chance that your Flowerhorn will just be too aggressive to house with other fish. Keep in mind that if the Flowerhorn is constantly chasing off the other fish, the Flowerhorn will become stressed. It views them as intruders in its territory, and its inability to chase them away can stress the Flowerhorn.
Setting up a Flowerhorn Fish Tank
Thinking about keeping a Flowerhorn fish? Here are a few things that you will need to consider:
- Tank: The tank should be 125-gallons if you wish to keep a single Flowerhorn cichlid or 150-gallons if you wish to keep other cichlids with your Flowerhorn fish. This gives them enough room to swim and turn and helps dilute the massive amount of waste they produce.
- Filtration: Canister Filters are the best option for the large tanks that Flowerhorn fish command. They filter large tanks far more efficiently than smaller filters, such as Hang-on-Back (HOB) or sponge filters.
- Lighting: Some owners pick specific LED lighting with adjustable colors in order to show the best colors for their fish. Flowerhorn fish are not demanding when it comes to lighting, and any aquarium light can be considered.
- Heater: A heater is essential to keeping Flowerhorns fish. They need a temperature of at least 80 degrees Fahrenheit, which you need a heater for. We recommend the Cobalt Aquatics Neo-Therm – they are durable and very consistent.
Most Flowerhorn fish are kept in bare tanks with no decorations for one reason: interaction. If they have other sources of entertainment, including tank mates, they will be less interactive with you.
If you are fine with a less interactive Flowerhorn, go wild with aquascaping.
Flowerhorn fish, like most cichlids, love to destroy plants. But it is possible to try hardier plants that can be super-glued to rocks around the tank. I recommend anubias species, java moss, and java ferns.
Large rocks and driftwood are common hardscapes found in Flowerhorn tanks. They provide some forms of hiding areas and playgrounds for the Flowerhorn. You also get to have some form of aquascaping control over the tank.
Flowerhorn fish are somewhat sensitive to ammonia and nitrite, so it is essential to completely cycle your aquarium before introducing any aquarium fish.
Even though you must wait to add your Flowerhorn fish, there is no need to wait to add plants or the hardscape. This is your time to set up the aquascape exactly to your liking before adding fish.
Plants also help absorb nitrogen compounds such as ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate, which keep fish healthy. They also carry in small colonies of bacteria that convert these harmful compounds to less harmful ones.
This speeds up the cycling process since the bacterial colonies are already established. And the only thing left to do is to build up their numbers.
All this essential cycling time allows you to research everything you need to know about your planned pet. Also, you have time for other types of bacteria and biofilm to establish, resulting in an overall healthier tank.
For more information about cycling your aquarium, check out our complete, easy-to-understand fishless cycle guide.
Breeding Flowerhorn Fish
Many Flowerhorn owners want to try their hand at breeding this magnificent fish. This could either be due to the potential money made from selling high-quality Flowerhorns, simple curiosity about their genetic background, or they may simply want to fully experience Flowerhorns.
Since Flowerhorns are a hybrid fish, most of them are infertile. The males are far more likely to be infertile than the females but being able to breed a pair of Flowerhorns is going almost impossible.
A more popular option is to find a cichlid that is likely to be in your Flowerhorn’s genetic history and breeding your Flowerhorn to that cichlid. You can try and breed for specific patterns, or even attempt a new variety of Flowerhorn!
The Breeding Setup
Flowerhorn fish breeding should take place in a tank separate from your Flowerhorn’s main tank. Flowerhorns tend to be extremely aggressive during spawning, even towards their partner, and to any other potential tank mate.
Additionally, they must be removed from the tank after a few days and it is easier to remove them to their normal tank(s) than set up new homes for a flowerhorn or two.
The fry tank is often the same as the breeding tank and should be 55-gallons or larger. The size is necessary for the potential 500-2000 fry and to give enough room for the two fish you choose to breed. A larger tank is more likely to diffuse aggression, or at least give the smaller fish room to get away.
The tank should be bare bottom with minimal decoration or a sand bottom. If you pick the latter, the male should dig a hole in the substrate and move the fry there after they hatch. The tank should be heated between 82 and 85 degrees and several large sponge filters should be present.
Setting up a Fry Tank for Flowerhorn Cichlids
Since the breeding tank should also double as the fry rearing tank, more tanks will not have to be set up for around a month. This is because the fry should not be moved for the first 2-4 weeks. As they grow, they will need new set tanks to provide each one with enough room.
Each should be set up like the initial breeding tank; bare bottom, sponge filtered and heated. There should only be two differences in terms of setup and water quality between the adult and fry tanks.
The adult tank should be filtered with a canister filter while the fry tanks require sponge filters. Also, nitrates should be below 40ppm in the adult tank and below 10ppm in the baby Flowerhorn tank. Neither tank should have any trace amounts of ammonia or nitrite.
Male flowerhorn cichlids tend to be more vibrant in color and have large nuchal humps, which most, but not all, females lack. They also have square-shaped breeding tubes that are flat at the end and a V-shaped vent.
Female flowerhorn cichlids often have a black stripe on their dorsal fin and will either have a very small nuchal hump or lack one altogether. They also have a triangular-shaped breeding tube and a U-shaped vent.
Conditioning Your Fish
Most flowerhorn cichlids are already fed a protein-rich diet. So if the male and female are already kept separately, it is possible to introduce them into the spawning tank without conditioning.
If they are housed together, they should be separated for 1-2 weeks and fed extra food for that time period. The temperature can also be raised by 1-3 degrees Fahrenheit if it does not exceed 85 degrees.
Spawning Flowerhorn Cichlids
Flowerhorn cichlids like to lay eggs on flat, rough surfaces, so flooring tile and terra cotta saucers are commonly used. Multiple options should be placed in the breeding tank, as Flowerhorns base their decision on both flow and surface. They will be seen cleaning the surface they wish to spawn on by pecking at it.
Some prefer to place a clear divider between the male and female in the breeding tank for several hours to several days. The divider should have water flow between them, as this will help hormones pass from one side to the other, which can induce spawning.
The Flowerhorns can also simply be added into the breeding tank and monitored for aggression and spawning. It is important to keep a close eye on them due to their aggressive nature and because of their intricate breeding rituals which are amazing to watch.
Flowerhorns perform dances for their mates and have detailed customs before spawning that seem to happen across several different types, despite the mixed genetics.
Caring for the Eggs
The Flowerhorns should care for the eggs and even move the young around from place to place. The females should be removed after spawning, but the male should be left in to care for the eggs.
After 3-5 days, the fry should be free swimming and the male should be removed. This can vary if you choose to breed a female Flowerhorn cichlid with another cichlid species, as the males have varying degrees of paternal care.
Once the fry reach the free-swimming stage, they no longer have their egg sacks to absorb nutrients from.
For the first month or so of their lives, they will be dependent on live food, so get ready beforehand, as the amount of cultures needed for 2000 fry is mind-boggling.
For the first one to two weeks, the Flowerhorn fry will be content with baby brine shrimp, but they must be fed 4-10 times daily. As you may imagine, this will quickly pollute the tank, so water changes are a must.
After the first few weeks, the Flowerhorns will have outgrown the brine shrimp and should graduate to large daphnia species, scuds, or small shrimp species.
At this point, the larger fry should be separated out into larger grow-out tanks. When raising so many fry, some will get more food than others and grow at a faster rate and there is nothing that can be done about this, meaning more tanks are necessary.
Between the ages of 2 and 3 months, pellet and flake food can be introduced, as well as worms, such as white worms and blackworms. Frozen foods, such as Mysis shrimp, and dried food like anchovies, crickets, and mealworms can also be introduced.
After around 3-4 months, most of the fry should be around 2-3” and are sellable. Unfortunately, due to Flowerhorn cichlids being a hybrid fish, most of the fry end up being culls.
What you do with the culls is up to you but raising lower grade fish and high-grade fish takes the same amount of energy and time. At the very least, culls should not be allowed to breed in order to further the strain.
Flowerhorn fish look very impressive and can intimidate people who don’t know much about them. Surely such a big and beautiful ornamental fish must be very difficult to keep, one might think.
But truthfully, the Flowerhorn cichlid is not too difficult. So long as you can provide them with a large enough tank and good water quality, your Flowerhorn fish should live for many years, providing you with plenty of entertainment in the meantime.
More Frequently Asked Questions about Flowerhorn Fish
Have you made it all the way to the end of this care guide but still have a few more questions? Then take a moment to read up on our frequently asked questions about flowerhorn fish.
Is Flowerhorn Fish Friendly?
Flowerhorn cichlids are fairly aggressive aquarium fish. They have been hybridized with many of the meanest aquarium cichlids from Central America. They aren’t as aggressive as Red Terrors or Umbee Cichlids. But you certainly would not want to keep an adult male Flowerhorn cichlid with peaceful tank mates unless the aquarium is very large.
What is the Cost of Flowerhorn Fish?
Flowerhorn cichlids vary a lot when it comes to price. You can find young ones that are low quality “mutts” for as little as $10 in many pet stores. But many of the fancier varieties I listed earlier cost a lot more. Top quality Flowerhorn fish from premium bloodlines can cost thousands of dollars apiece. They may even have pedigrees and paperwork like a show quality dog or koi fish.
How Big Can a Flowerhorn Fish Get?
8 to 12 inches is normal for a Flowerhorn cichlid. But be prepared for them to get larger, depending on their sex and genetics. Some adult male Flowerhorn fish will reach up to 16 inches long and require an aquarium at least 125 gallons in size. Remember, even a small Flowerhorn cichlid is a very large fish.
Is Flowerhorn Fish Lucky?
Flowerhorn cichlid fish are prized for their beauty and are often believed to be signs of good fortune in East Asia, where they were first bred. Restaurants, banks, hotels, and other establishments often have an aquarium with one or more Flowerhorn fish as a sign of prosperity.